Studies on specific groups
Danone researchers have been collaborating for over 15 years with international research laboratories.
Thanks to more than 24 scientific studies (human, in vivo and in vitro), they’ve built a scientific case that supports the beneficial effects of DanActiveTM’s L. casei DefensisTM (or its scientific name, DN-114 001) on the body’s natural defenses. DanActiveTM helps strengthen the body’s natural defenses when consumed daily.
DanActiveTM and children
Diarrhea is an example of a situation where our natural defenses are involved.
A major study was carried out on 928 young children in daycare centres. This group consumed two DanActiveTMs per day for four months. Researchers observed that the percentage of children experiencing diarrhea was significantly lower than in normal times.
Another study, carried out on 287 children who consumed one to two DanActiveTMs per day, proved that consumption of DanActiveTM significantly reduced the severity of episodes of diarrhea.
Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER et al. "Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea", Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2000, Vol. 54, No. 9, pp. 568-571.
Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, et al. "The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres", Int. J. Clin. Pract., 1999, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 179-184.
DanActiveTM and the elderly
A pilot study involving 360 independent adults over age 60 showed that taking two DanActiveTMs per day for three weeks reduced the length of winter infections.
Turchet P, Laurenzano M, Auboiron S, Antoine JM. "Effect of fermented milk containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on winter infections in free living elderly subjects: a randomised, controlled pilot study", J. Nutr. Health Aging, 2003, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 75-77.
DanActiveTM, stress and natural defenses
Stressful situations put our bodies to the test. Stress can be brought on by psychological pressure (e.g. during exam time), or physical pressure (e.g. while practising a competitive sport). Whatever its cause, stress can result in the weakening of certain elements of our natural defenses.
A. "Psychological" stress and our natural defenses
A study involving university students aged 18 to 23 demonstrated that DanActiveTM helps improve the response of certain defence cells in situations of intense intellectual stress brought on by exam time.
The study also proved that consuming DanActiveTM daily can significantly increase the presence of lymphocytes and NK (natural killer) cells, which are among the first cells to intervene against pathogens. NK cells are among the most important cells in our immune system. An increase in these cells indicates an improvement of certain elements of the immune system.
Marcos A, Wämberg J, Nova E et al. "The effect of milk fermented by yoghurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on the immune response of subjects under academic examination stress", Eur. J. Nutr., 2004, No. 43, pp. 381-389
B. "Physical" stress and natural defenses
During intense physical activity (such as competitive sports), the body’s natural defenses are weakened, resulting in a decrease in the number of NK cells (among the first cells to intervene against pathogens) produced by our bodies.
In another study, carried out among competitive athletes who consumed the equivalent of five DanActiveTMs a day, researchers noted that the decrease in NK cells due to physical effort was significantly lower, and that consequently, the body’s natural defenses could be strengthened.
Pujol P, Huguet, Drobnic F, et al. "The effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei on the immune response to exercise. Sports Med Training and rehab", 2000, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 209-223.
1- The Oozer study in 2002 consisted of tests undertaken on mice carrying human intestinal flora. The study showed that Lactobacillus casei DN 114 001 can survive and produce proteins during its passage through the digestive tract.
Researchers modified the bacteria L. casei DefensisTM to make it capable of synthesizing a protein that emits light under certain conditions (luciferase, which enables fireflies and glow worms to produce light). Phosphorescence indicated that the bacteria had synthesized the protein.
The research team administered this modified L. casei to the mice carrying human intestinal flora.
The results of this study revealed the presence of luciferase in the digestive tracts of the mice. The presence indicated that the bacteria were capable of synthesizing this protein during their passage, and that L. casei DefensisTM not only survived, but was also able to function.
In addition, the study proved that L. casei DefensisTM survives passage through the intestines and is eliminated at the same speed as any other inert marker. These bacteria therefore do not settle in the digestive tract.
Oozeer R, Goupil FN, Alpert CA, et al. "Lactobacillus casei is able to survive and initiate protein synthesis during its transit in the digestive tract of human flora-associated mice. Applied and Env Microbiology", 2002, No. 68, pp. 3570-3574.
2- The study by Pujol et al. in 2000 highlighted the positive effect of consuming DanActiveTM on certain parameters of the immune system.
Out of a group of 94 athletes, 25 were selected who showed a significant decrease in their number of NK cells two hours after a stress test.
These athletes consumed 500 ml of DanActiveTM daily for one month, then after an interval of 30 days, 500 ml of milk for another month. For each cycle, researchers measured the levels of different categories of immune cells (NK cells, interleukins, immunoglobulins, etc.) before a stress test, then five minutes and two hours afterward.
This study revealed that consuming DanActiveTM significantly minimized the drop in the number of NK cells observed after the stress test, compared to the period in which the athletes consumed ordinary milk. Daily consumption of DanActiveTM helps limit the negative effects of sustained exertion on certain parameters of the immune system.
Pujol P, Huguet, Drobonic F, et al. "The effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei on the immune response to exercise, Sports Med Training and Rehab", 2000, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 209-223.
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